These sources contradict one another on a number of events in Nero's life including the death of Claudius, the death of Agrippina, and the Roman fire of 64, but they are consistent in their condemnation of Nero. [11][12]:87 He was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger. Although he has a generally bad or dim view of Nero, he speaks of others' positive reception of Nero in the East. [30]:257, Jürgen Malitz writes that ancient sources do not provide any clear evidence to evaluate the extent of Nero's personal involvement in politics during the first years of his reign. However, the foiled coup only made Nero worse and widespread executions followed, including the poet Lucan and the emperor’s old tutor, Seneca. Various plots against Nero's life developed, and Nero had many of those involved put to death. [11][32], Modern scholars believe that Nero's reign had been going well in the years before Agrippina's death. [30]:265 Nero decided to adopt a more lenient approach to governing the province, and appointed a new governor, Petronius Turpilianus.[16]:33. [132][145], In 422, Augustine of Hippo wrote about 2 Thessalonians 2:1–11, where he believed that Paul mentioned the coming of the Antichrist. [30]:26 According to Tacitus, Nero divorced Octavia on grounds of infertility, and banished her. When he called for a gladiator or anyone else adept with a sword to kill him, no one appeared. Complete obedience was accorded to a woman—and not a woman like Messalina who toyed with national affairs. The historian Josephus (c. 37–100), while calling Nero a tyrant, was also the first to mention bias against Nero. He was the last member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, and had reigned for thirteen years, seven months, and twenty-five days. Upon hearing news of the fire, Nero returned to Rome to organize a relief effort, providing for the removal of bodies and debris, which he paid for from his own funds. [46] This Golden House or Domus Aurea included lush artificial landscapes and a 30-meter-tall statue of himself, the Colossus of Nero. Lactantius maintains that it is not right to believe this. "[44]:54–55, Nero established the Neronian games in 60 AD. Tacitus and Suetonius wrote their histories on Nero over fifty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 150 years after Nero's death. He passed the greater part of his life in public service. [78], According to Sulpicius Severus, it is unclear whether Nero took his own life. Fabius Rusticus, Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder all wrote condemning histories on Nero that are now lost. [85], Eastern sources, namely Philostratus and Apollonius of Tyana, mention that Nero's death was mourned as he "restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character"[86] and that he "held our liberties in his hand and respected them". He wrote, "Examine your records. Suetonius wrote that Nero started the fire because he wanted the space to build his Golden House. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 84 per Roman pound to 96 (3.80 grams to 3.30 grams). Some modern biblical scholars[147][148] such as Delbert Hillers (Johns Hopkins University) of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the editors of the Oxford Study Bible and Harper Collins Study Bible, contend that the number 666 in the Book of Revelation is a code for Nero,[149] a view that is also supported in Roman Catholic Biblical commentaries. The legend of Nero's return lasted for hundreds of years after Nero's death. Dispatching messages to his friends' palace chambers for them to come, he received no answers. According to ancient texts, Nero killed his own mother. [16]:11, Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41. Non-Christian historian Tacitus describes Nero extensively torturing and executing Christians after the fire of 64. Some evidence exists suggesting that Nero knew of the poisoning when he later called mushrooms the “food of the gods.” There was also fear that Britannicus (Claudius’s legitimate son) might be chosen as emperor ahead of Nero. [135], The first text to suggest that Nero ordered the execution of an apostle is a letter by Clement to the Corinthians traditionally dated to around AD 96. Even then he needed help to drive the dagger home. A Roman army under Paetus surrendered under humiliating circumstances and though both Roman and Parthian forces withdrew from Armenia, it was under Parthian control. [121] Nero is portrayed as a tyrant, but those that replace him are not described as better. [13]:214 In Annals Tacitus writes that Agrippina opposed Nero's affair with Poppaea because of her affection for his wife Octavia. [122], Suetonius (c. 69–130) was a member of the equestrian order, and he was the head of the department of the imperial correspondence. [16]:13 Since Agrippina had replaced the guard officers with men loyal to her, Nero was able to assume power without incident. [citation needed], Cassius Dio (c. 155–229) was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator. Learn how and when to remove this template message, reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation, [ˈnɛroː ˈklau̯dijʊs ˈkae̯sar au̯ˈɡʊstʊs ɡɛrˈmaːnɪkʊs], "Roman Same-Sex Weddings from the Legal Perspective", "Philip Schaff: NPNF-211. [71] However, after putting down this one rebel, Verginius' legions attempted to proclaim their own commander as Emperor. [59] According to Tacitus, many conspirators wished to "rescue the state" from the emperor and restore the Republic. ", Warden reduces its size to under 100 acres (0.40 km. How did Nero die? [71] In an attempt to gain support from outside his own province, Vindex called upon Servius Sulpicius Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, to join the rebellion and further, to declare himself emperor in opposition to Nero.[72]. [66], In 67, Nero married Sporus, a young boy who is said to have greatly resembled Poppaea. Scholars generally credit Nero's advisors Burrus and Seneca with the administrative successes of these years. As time passed, he began to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. Nero devalued the Roman currency for the first time in the Empire's history. [61] As a result, the conspiracy failed and its members were executed including Lucan, the poet. Most Roman sources, including Suetonius and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign; likewise, Tacitus claims that the Roman people thought him compulsive and corrupt. [11] According to Tacitus, the source of conflict between Nero and his mother was Nero's affair with Poppaea Sabina. Nero—Empero of Rome, 54 – 68 AD. A coronation ceremony was held in Italy 66 AD. Tacitus described the rule of the Julio-Claudian emperors as generally unjust. [52][53] The popular legend that Nero played the fiddle while Rome burned "is at least partly a literary construct of Flavian propaganda [...] which looked askance on the abortive Neronian attempt to rewrite Augustan models of rule". Once there, the man who had killed his wife, mother and adopted brother without compunction and was rumoured to have started the Great Fire of Rome spent the last few hours of his life attempting to avoid the inevitability of his death. [96] It was said that the common Roman hailed Otho as Nero himself. [16]:32[30]:254 Under Boudica the towns of Camulodunum (Colchester), Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St Albans) were burned and a substantial body of legion infantry destroyed. Modeled on Greek style games, these games included "music" "gymnastic" and "questrian" contents. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica. Since the reign of Augustus, it had been Roman policy to appoint vassal kings there and so make Armenia a buffer state against Parthia, Rome’s implacable foe in the east. This is fidelity! [150][151] The statement concerns Revelation 17:1–18, "the longest explanatory passage in Revelation", which predicts the destruction of Rome by work of an eight emperor who was also one of the seven kings of the most extended and powerful empire ever known in the human history: according to this lecture, Babylon the Great is identified with Rome[152] which has poured the blood of saints and martyrs (verse 6) and subsequently become the seat of the Vatican State, reigning over all the kings existing on Earth. Some sources, though, portray him as a competent emperor who was popular with the Roman people, especially in the east. According to Tacitus, Nero was in Antium during the fire. Billon tetradrachm of Nero. In public, Agrippina was austere and often arrogant. [15]:3, Nero's father, Domitius, died in 40 AD. Rome Post Nero: Many in Rome celebrated the death of Nero, but their celebration would soon turn to fear and chaos. She was also able to convince Claudius to replace with a single commander, Burrus, two prefects of the Praetorian guard who were suspected of supporting Brittanicus. He snatched up two daggers and tried the points as if to kill himself —only to throw down again, protesting the time of his death had not yet come. [81], According to Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the people of Rome celebrated the death of Nero. Deserted and reviled, Nero had fled Rome in disguise to the villa of one of his freedmen. Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December 37 AD in Antium. [17] Agrippina married Claudius in 49 AD and became his fourth wife. For example, Nero promoted the exploration of the Nile river sources with a successful expedition. [50] According to this account, many Christians were arrested and brutally executed by "being thrown to the beasts, crucified, and being burned alive".[51]. [106] This revolt was eventually put down in 70, after Nero's death. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius had not died in the year 37". At the age of 16, Nero succeeded Claudius as emperor when the latter fell ill and died in the early hours of 13 October 54 AD, allegedly poisoned by Agrippina. These advantages to Nero led to rumours that the Emperor was the arsonist. Shotter writes the following about Agrippina's deteriorating relationship with Nero: "What Seneca and Burrus probably saw as relatively harmless in Nero—his cultural pursuits and his affair with the slave girl Claudia Acte—were to her signs of her son's dangerous emancipation of himself from her influence. [citation needed]. However, within months of his death, rumours began that Nero still lived and would return in glory to reclaim his empire. [13]:5 He was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter, Julia. While in this position, Suetonius started writing biographies of the emperors, accentuating the anecdotal and sensational aspects. The first five years of Nero’s reign were relatively benign. Her body was not cremated, as would have been strictly customary, but embalmed after the Egyptian manner and entombed; it is not known where. [11][24]:417, Most of what we know about Nero's reign comes from three ancient writers: Tacitus, Suetonius, and Greek historian Cassius Dio. Around 57 AD and 58 AD Domitius Corbulo and his legions advanced on Tiridates and captured the Armenian capital Artaxata. Then in 64 AD, the Great Fire of Rome broke out. To find the necessary funds for the reconstruction, tributes were imposed on the provinces of the empire. Nero, known for being one of Rome’s most murderous and capricious leaders, became emperor when his step-father Claudius died in AD 54. Nero and the Narada's very presence in 2233 created the alternate reality, causing divergences both immediate (the destruction caused by the ship) and unrelated (Pavel Chekov's date of birth, for example). What year did Nero die? [11] That same year Nero called for the first treason trial of his reign (maiestas trial) against Antistius Sosianus. Answer to: When did Nero die? Suetonius reports that the text of this speech was later found in Nero's writing desk, but that he dared not give it from fear of being torn to pieces before he could reach the Forum. In 65Ad, a plot to replace Nero arose which he learned of and thwarted. At the end of 66 AD, conflict broke out between Greeks and Jews in Jerusalem and Caesarea. [108], Nero studied poetry, music, painting and sculpture. “I have only to appear and sing to have peace once more in Gaul,” he allegedly declared. [101] After persuading some to recognize him, he was captured and executed. Although he rejects the theory, Augustine mentions that many Christians believed Nero was the Antichrist or would return as the Antichrist. [100], At least three Nero imposters emerged leading rebellions. Nero began preparing for war in the early years of his reign, after the Parthian king Vologeses set his brother Tiridates on the Armenian throne. [42] Tacitus and Cassius Dio have both written of extensive damage to the Palatine, which has been supported by subsequent archaeological excavations. and ran out as if to throw himself into the Tiber.[74]. Between the years 51 AD and 53 AD, he gave several speeches on behalf of various communities including the Ilians; the Apameans, requesting a five-year tax reprieve after an earthquake; and the northern colony of Bologna, after their settlement suffered a devastating fire. The Great Fire of Rome, was an urban fire that occurred in July, 64 AD. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person, status, and office. Many of these disciplines were standard education for the Roman elite, but Nero's devotion to music exceeded what was socially acceptable for a Roman of his class. [31][13]:215 Barrett writes that Poppaea seems to serve as a "literary device, utilized [by Tacitus] because [he] could see no plausible explanation for Nero's conduct and also incidentally [served] to show that Nero, like Claudius, had fallen under the malign influence of a woman. [20]:231, Claudius died in 54 AD; many ancient historians claim that he was poisoned by Agrippina. His murderous madness finally culminated in him kicking his pregnant wife, Poppaea, to death. [30]:258 However, Nero's "conduct became far more egregious" after his mother's death. [134] These expelled "Jews" may have been early Christians, although Suetonius is not explicit. [19]:119 Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making. The men actually had the goal of returning Nero back to the Senate, where the Senate hoped to work out a compromise with the rebelling governors that would preserve Nero's life, so that at least a future heir to the dynasty could be produced. All were out-ed as fakes and foreign pawns. Still, there are several references to Nero in Pliny's Natural Histories. [14]:19, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome cautiously notes that Nero's reasons for killing his mother in 59 AD are "not fully understood". [113] A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. But why did so many cling to the idea that the former emperor lived? Prasutagus' will leaving control of the Iceni to his wife Boudica was denied, and, when Catus Decianus scourged Boudica and raped her daughters, the Iceni revolted. Malitz writes that "Nero abandoned the restraint he had previously shown because he believed a course supporting the Senate promised to be less and less profitable. Politically isolated, Seneca was forced to retire. [11]:22 Miriam T. Griffins suggests that Nero's decline began as early as 55 AD with the murder of his stepbrother Britannicus, but also notes that "Nero lost all sense of right and wrong and listened to flattery with total credulity" after Agrippina's death. On June 9th, 68 AD, Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar— better known as Emperor Nero — died by his own hand after being declared an enemy of the state by the Roman senate. [30]:260 It destroyed three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaged seven more. The news sent Nero into a frenzied panic. [97] Otho used "Nero" as a surname and reerected many statues to Nero. After Vulcan's destruction, Spock led the survivors to settle on the New Vulcan colony. Nero won every contest in which he was a competitor. However, several other accounts going back to the 1st century have Paul surviving his two years in Rome and travelling to Hispania, before facing trial in Rome again prior to his death.[139]. [77], When one of the horsemen entered and saw that Nero was dying, he attempted to stop the bleeding, but efforts to save Nero's life were unsuccessful. At the Battle of Vesontio in May 68, Verginius' forces easily defeated those of Vindex and the latter committed suicide. [42][43], Tacitus, the main ancient source for information about the fire, wrote that countless mansions, residences and temples were destroyed. In 68 AD, the Gallic and Spanish legions, along with the Praetorian Guards, rose against Nero and he fled Rome. He writes of peace and prosperity under Nero in contrast to previous war and strife. On the 9 th of June, AD 68, the Emperor Nero committed suicide, the first Emperor to do so. [13]:215 A number of modern historians have noted that Agrippina's death would not have offered much advantage for Poppaea, as Nero did not marry Poppaea until 62 AD. [5][6] His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Tacitus mentions that Nero's death was welcomed by Senators, nobility and the upper class. The prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, also abandoned his allegiance to the Emperor and came out in support of Galba. [76] Losing his nerve, he begged one of his companions to set an example by killing himself first. He was supported by the Parthians, who only reluctantly gave him up,[103] and the matter almost came to war. Artaxata was temporarily renamed Neroneia. Nero said, "He desires to lay waste His House and to lay the blame on me," whereupon he fled and converted to Judaism to avoid such retribution. He entered his political life as a senator after Nero's death and, by Tacitus' own admission, owed much to Nero's rivals. He also thought that existing writing on them was unbalanced: The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred. Tacitus says that Locusta prepared the poison, which was served to the Emperor by his food taster Halotus. However, he still could not bring himself to take his own life, but instead forced his private secretary, Epaphroditos, to perform the task. Rome under Emperor Nero . In the aftermath, Nero abandoned Rome and spent a happy two years touring Greece, competing in athletic and musical contests — including the Olympic games — and basking in the adoration of his Hellenistic subjects. [107] This revolt is famous for Romans breaching the walls of Jerusalem and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nero&oldid=998759172, Roman emperors to suffer posthumous denigration or damnatio memoriae, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles needing additional references from June 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, (Russian) Mikhail Berman-Tsikinovsky "The Pisonian Conspiracy"(Заговор Пизона)docudrama based on Tacitus Annals 15 and other sources. Occupation: Emperor of Rome. [18]:54 Agrippina's involvement in Claudius' death is not accepted by all modern scholars. The bulk of what is known of Nero comes from Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio, who were all of the senatorial class. However, behind the scenes, the cracks were beginning to show, and Nero started to remove anyone in perceived opposition to him. Image © Mint Imperials. [112] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Nero written by the next generations of historians. [90] This reworking of images is often explained as part of the way in which the memory of disgraced emperors was condemned posthumously[91] (see damnatio memoriae). [118], Although more of a poet than historian, Lucanus (c. 39–65) has one of the kindest accounts of Nero's rule. [iv][11] By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius to adopt her son Nero. The Bosporan Kingdom was briefly annexed to the empire, and the First Jewish–Roman War began. [74], Nero returned to Rome and spent the evening in the palace. At last, the sound of approaching horsemen drove Nero to face the end. Pliny described Nero as an "actor-emperor" (scaenici imperatoris) and Suetonius wrote that he was "carried away by a craze for popularity...since he was acclaimed as the equal of Apollo in music and of the Sun in driving a chariot, he had planned to emulate the exploits of Hercules as well. Nero (/ˈnɪəroʊ/ NEER-oh; Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus;[i] 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the fifth Roman emperor, ruling from 54 to 68. Basically, he pretended to be dead, then got up and went to hang out with his friends. [69][70] Lucius Verginius Rufus, the governor of Germania Superior, was ordered to put down Vindex's rebellion. However, by this time, Agrippina had already taken the next step -- the death of Claudius, placing Nero upon the emperor’s throne. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Problem: If we accept the Jesus-is-god and Jesus-was-resurrected parts of the Jesus story, Jesus didn't really die. Some record that, when he was at a feast with priests on the citadel, it was given to him by his taster, the eunuch Halotus, others that it was given him at a family dinner by Agrippina herself, offering him the drug in a dish of mushrooms, a kind of food to which he was very partial...His death was concealed until all arrangements were in place with regard to his successor.". The fire began in the merchant shops around Rome's chariot stadium, Circus Maximus, on the night of July 19. In contrast, his populist style of rule remained well-admired among the lower classes of Rome and the provinces until his death and beyond. [80]:19 When news of his death reached Rome, the Senate posthumously declared Nero a public enemy to appease the coming Galba (as the Senate had initially declared Galba as a public enemy) and proclaimed Galba as the new emperor. [117] He makes a few passing negative comments on Nero's character in his work, but makes no remarks on the nature of his rule. He then asked a passing child to repeat the verse he had learned that day. Houses built after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads. By 48 AD, Agrippina the Younger had married her Uncle, Emperor Claudius and in 50 AD, the ailing Emperor adopted his great-nephew as his son. [84] The lower-class, slaves, frequenters of the arena and the theater, and "those who were supported by the famous excesses of Nero", on the other hand, were upset with the news. However, in January 68AD, the emperor’s extended foreign holiday came to an abrupt close when Helios, the freedmen he had left governing Rome, advised Nero to return to Rome quickly — or lose the purple. Indeed, most of the senators had served the imperial family all their lives and felt a sense of loyalty to the deified bloodline, if not to Nero himself. Pliny has one of the worst opinions of Nero and calls him an "enemy of mankind".[120]. [18]:53 Contemporary sources differ in their accounts. [14]:2, The ancient biographer Suetonius, who was critical of Nero's ancestors, wrote that Augustus had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. [124], Tacitus was the son of a procurator, who married into the elite family of Agricola. He made public appearances as an actor, poet, musician, and charioteer. [54], In the wake of the fire, he made a new urban development plan. Sources describe Acte as a slave girl (Shotter) and a freedwoman (Champlin and Scullard). Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favourable light. [44] The fire is reported to have burned for over a week. In response, Nero fled Rome with the intention of going to the port of Ostia and, from there, to take a fleet to one of the still-loyal eastern provinces. [102] Twenty years after Nero's death, during the reign of Domitian, there was a third pretender. "[20]:231 David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s. Verginius refused to act against Nero, but the discontent of the legions of Germany and the continued opposition of Galba in Spain did not bode well for him. Nero complied — but it was too late. Nero had become Emperor five years previously when he … [28], Nero became emperor in 54 AD, aged sixteen years. [101] Sometime during the reign of Titus (79–81), another impostor appeared in Asia and sang to the accompaniment of the lyre and looked like Nero but he, too, was killed. Born: December 15, 37 AD in Antium, Italy. His infamous reign is usually associated with tyranny, extravagance and debauchery. Death of Nero by Vasiliy Smirnov, 1888. Peter is first said to have been crucified upside-down in Rome during Nero's reign (but not by Nero) in the apocryphal Acts of Peter (c. During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother Agrippina, his tutor Seneca, and his Praetorian prefect Afranius Burrus. [57] The cost to rebuild Rome was immense, requiring funds the state treasury did not have. Caligula then banished his two surviving sisters, Agrippina and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea. In the aftermath of the fire, two thirds of Rome had been destroyed. 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