S. Carey's "More I See" is made up of 4-bar phrases that include 2 measures of 4/4, 1 measure of 3/4, and 1 measure of 4/4. Burt Bacharach combines both uses in "I Say A Little Prayer." Download. Some types of notes that may get the beat are eighth notes, quarter notes, half notes and whole notes. If a song doesn't have a key signature (for example, if it's in C Major with no sharps or flats), … Meter changes can also help you out when you're facing the opposite problem - that you've said all you wanted to say and you're still left with too much empty space. Time signatures are what give a song its beat. For example should we group them in beats of two, three, four or something else. In their case, the verses are in 4/4, whereas the choruses sit in 7/4. The main thing to remember is a time signature tells you: How many of what kind. Now that you're empowered with the tools to create meter changes in your own songs, let's take a look at a few examples of the different places where you can apply meter changes. A time signature is a set of two numbers, one on top of the other one, written right after the key signature in a piece of music. A time signature is made up of two numbers, one on top of the other and looks a bit like a fraction. Just like with time signatures that you place at the beginning of a song, meter changes also have a few ground rules that you have to understand and follow: Now take a look at the notation example above. The second option isn't better: cut the lyrics. Publisher of OnlineDrummer.com, Alfred Publishing author, Ddrum artist, and veteran Drum! It means there are four quarter notes (or any combination of notes that equals four quarter notes) in every measure. Bar lines are extended to connect multiple staves in certain types of music, such as for keyboard or harp, and in conductor scores, but such extensions are not used for other types of music, such as vocal scores. This time signature chart shows the most common regular time signatures.. A regular time signature is one which represents 2, 3 or 4 main beats per bar. You can do it with a meter change. read more, This sheet music accompanies Alex Ribchester's video drum lesson titled "Sextuplet Drum Fills." The number on top, however, will sometimes be an odd number and this is where more complex time signatures begin to emerge. Give a listen to The Beatles' "Happiness Is A Warm Gun." The top number is 2 which tells you that there are two beats in each bar. The verses are written in 6/4, which then is changed to 4/4 in the choruses. Upload a document. Most time signatures consist of two vertically aligned numbers. Time signature explained on an iPhone and show off to your colleagues: Install the signNow app and register your account. In most sheet music, the time signature only needs to appear on the very first staff of the composition. If your phrases are a little too packed together try adding a few beats here and there which will create the much-needed space for breathing. In music, a time signature tells you the meter of the piece you’re playing. Music Time Signatures Explained. _____ 1. The 4/4 time signature is so common that it actually has two names and two forms, the first being 4/4, and the second being the , … Part 4: Time Signatures Explained, Writing Songs in Odd Meters. Whether you're just getting started on your songwriting journey and looking to spice things up, or you're a time signature pro who's already proficient in writing songs in odd meters, subtle time signature changes can help you a lot. Time signatures can be found at the very start of a piece of sheet music, right after the key signature. Nate Brown. The app is well suited for work within an organization or for B2B and B2C collaboration. Time Signatures – Explained. This will make the chorus or verse arrive sooner than expected. Time signature, in musical notation, sign that indicates the meter of a composition. Common examples of compound time signatures are 6/8, 9/8, 12/8, and 9/4. 4/4 Time Signature. Learn tips on how to process backing vocals to tame overused processing, add timbral interest, and re-image vocals in a stereo mix. However, in measure three, I create a meter change, altering the time signature to 3/4. read more, This week we're going over the bridge groove and fills from Drops of Jupiter by Train. You’ll always see a number on the bottom of a time signature that will fit evenly into a whole note. This is how you can tell the difference between simple and compound time: the top number of the time signature tells you, and the rhythms in the bar tell you too. All Rights Reserved. You can unsubscribe at any time. Meter changes are notated just like regular time signatures, however, unlike the first time signature established at the beginning of a piece, meter changes can happen anywhere later in the song. The most common time signatures you will come across, especially if you are a beginner, are 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4. A time signature is the number of beats and the type of note the beat is. Copyright © 2001–2021 iZotope, Inc. All rights reserved. If all you need is just two extra beats to fit everything you want to say, add two beats. By Nate Brown Lesson Sheet reading. I’ll explain what I mean by this shortly but first, let’s look at ho… The most common simple time signatures you will see are Check out Kacey Musgraves' "Biscuits" for a great example of that. This sheet provides the notation for the beginning portion... read more, This sheet music accompanies Alex Ribchester's video drum lesson on some cool linear drum fill ideas. A great example of meter changes by section is Hozier's "Take Me To Church." These changes help the song move forward and allow each section to sound unique and interesting. Remember that a Time Signature tells us … Meter changes can be used creatively to enhance the flow of your melody. This change is one you would definitely feel, and your audience would be intrigued by it, which would pull them closer into your song. This would give you two extra beats to say the words you need to say in a comfortable way (song blocking can also help with that). meter changes in their song "The Dance of Eternity.". Then, in the following measure, you could go back to your previous time signature, back to the comfortable groove. The two numbers in a time signature tell you how many of one kind of note there are in each measure in the song. In simple time, the top figure reflects the number of beats in each measure; the bottom figure indicates the note value that receives one beat. Since I only want the 3/4 measure to take effect on one bar, in measure four I need to create another meter change that shifts us back into 4/4. Time Signatures Explained, Part 5: Creating Interesting Motion with Meter Changes, Meter Changes have to be placed at the beginning of a measure, The new time signature overrides the previous one and stays in effect indefinitely until a new time signature is introduced. For another example, listen to OutKast's "Hey Ya!," which is entirely built of 6-bar phrases that consist of sequences made up of 3 measures of 4/4, 1 measure of 2/2, and 2 measures of 4/4. Here are some examples of what a time signature looks like: A time signature also tells us what what kind of beat to count. So make sure your singers have the space to breathe. The first, add a whole measure, will give you the space to say what you need to say, but it will also leave empty space that you won't use. The two basic options aren't great. Knowing what the time of a piece of music is keeps all musicians on the same page allowing them to play together. It's a great way to surprise your listeners by musically arriving early. If you read my article on making your melodies memorable, you'll know that breathing is super important when it comes to creating great melodies that anybody can sing. Simple because the beats that we are counting are made of plain, undotted notes. Compound Time signatures are often found in our music. Top. Simple time signatures are the most common kind of time signature and they pop up regularly in popular music due to the clear, easy to determine beats. Magazine contributor, Nate earned his … Notation Format. Simple and Compound Time Signatures Explained ( All purchases include versions with & without the instrumental part sounding in the background ) Music theory hints and tips. If you've followed our Time Signature series, you are probably a pro at using standard time signatures and lots of odd meters. Time signatures contain two numbers: the top number indicates the number of beats in each bar. The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are contained in each measure (bar), and which note value is equivalent to a beat. Sometimes, no matter how hard you try, you just can't get all the words in within the parameters of the groove. A song is divided up into measures. You can visualize all of that on the sheet music. Sign up for our newsletter and get tutorials and tips delivered to your inbox. The term “Four on the Floor” refers to dance music that will always be in 4/4 – four beats per measure because that’s the best beat to dance to. You can see that at the beginning of the piece I established a time signature of 4/4. Let's take a look at how they are notated, so you can jump right into using them in your own songwriting! The time signature chart also shows you which are simple and compound time signatures. Or three? This one, also called waltz-time, has a nice flow to it that breaks the rigidness of 4/4, replacing it with three beats in each measure, which helps make things more fluid. read more, This sheet music accompanies Nate Brown's video lesson on the bridge portion of Uprising by Muse. If you're Stravinsky, then this is a technique you use to create highly sophisticated rhythms. Get top stories of the week and special discount offers right in your inbox. Sometimes the beat is not on a note but on a rest. This lesson sheet accompanies Alex Ribchester's video lesson laying out some slick linear licks between the ride and hi-hat. This video explains and discusses the most common time signatures. The bottom number is 4, which tells you that you are counting crotchets, or quarter notes. Quadruple time means 4 main beats per bar. , search. Whether you decide to use time signature changes for short temporary rhythmic alterations or to change the groove of an entire section, you now have all the tools at your disposal to create some incredibly interesting songs. All key signatures have 2 numbers. These separate measures (see time signatures below for an explanation of measures). The time signature is notated after the clef and the key signature. Rather than adding beats, cut the last bar shorter. You could extend the measure by changing the meter in that one bar, turning it from a 4/4 bar into a temporary 6/4 bar. Time Signatures - Name_____ Time signatures appear at the beginning of a piece of music music. Then to go deeper, the song introduces yet another section which alternates between bars of 9/8 and 10/8! the bottom number is a symbol to indicate the type of beat. Showing where the time signature will be at the beginning of a piece. As specified by rule number two above, this 3/4 would apply to measure 3, 4, 5, and every measure for the remainder of the song. This is one of the more popular uses for meter changes. In this article we explore the history, technology, and music that inspired the newly-refreshed Vinyl plug-in’s Lo-fi feature, and hear from two of its developers firsthand. Your audience has come to expect that once you reach beat one in four beats, we'll hear the next phrase. Publisher of OnlineDrummer.com, Alfred Publishing author, Ddrum artist, and veteran Drum! The 4/4 grounds the chorus emotionally, which works perfectly for the song. Let's start off by defining what meter is. You can feel that shift happen and it reels you in. Sign up for our newsletter and get tutorials and tips delivered to your inbox. Here are the previous parts of our Time Signature series: Say you have a line of lyrics that just doesn't seem to fit right in your measure, no matter how fast you try to sing it. For instance, a “4” on the bottom means that a quarter note gets the beat. Another reason to use meter changes is the element of surprise. Finally, frequent and radical meter changes can create a lack of stability, or go as far as creating total rhythmic chaos, which may be exactly what your song needs. Imagine having a steady beat that suddenly gets broken and a new one is introduced instead? The whole song is written in 4/4, however, at the end her verses she adds an extra two beats before going into the chorus. read more, This is the second of a series of drumming music sheets (series title: "Drum Set Time") that is designed... read more, This drill features six sticking variations for the above galloping rhythm. The fact that that third line is always cut short really gives the whole phrase a unique movement forward. It is designed to improve your coordination and... read more, Trouble's Coming - Royal Blood - Drum Sheet Music, Private Eyes - Hall and Oates - Drum Sheet Music, Fight Fire with Fire - Metallica - Drum Sheet Music, You've Got Another Thing Comin' - Judas Priest - Drum Sheet Music, Creative Boxes - Ebook (Bonus: Accompanying Video), Shot in the Dark - ACDC - Drum Sheet Music, Forget Me Too - Machine Gun Kelly - Drum Sheet Music, Black Eyes Blue - Corey Taylor - Drum Sheet Music, Take Me Out - Franz Ferdinand - Drum Sheet Music. read more, This sheet music accompanies Alex Ribchester's video drum lesson laying down a cool sounding triplet pattern that works out... read more, Steve Smith's melodic solo is a tribute to Max Roach. Simple time signatures refer to 2/2, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4. Anytime you see a time signature with an "8" as the bottom number, you have a compound time signature. As a matter of fact, the two letter time signatures are actually shorthand and variations for the most common numerical time signatures, 4/4 and 2/2. For example, 4 4. We use time signatures to tell musicians how to group musical notes. (On a side note, there's another hidden meter change in the choruses. Unlike the key signature, which is written on every line of music, the time signature is indicated only once at the beginning of a piece. These are often called duple, triple, and quadruple time. Compound time signatures use 6, 9 and 12 as the top number. It can provide us with a very balanced pulse. Time signatures where the beat can be divided into two equal parts are known as simple time signatures. Ever wonder what the numbers in a time signature represent? 3. Tap Done and generate signing links. Count the beat numbers in each bar (written out underneath) to see how the meter change affects how many beats each measure has and how that rhythm flows. The two numbers in the time signature tell you how many beats are in each measure of music. But what if you … You guessed it, create a meter change. The bottom note of the signature indicates which type of note gets the beat. We'll look at why you'd want to create meter changes, how they benefit various areas of your song, and how to implement them in your songwriting and music production. © Copyright 2004 - 2020 OnlineDrummer.com, LLC. read more, This beat sheet accompanies Nate Brown's lesson titled "Sixteenth-Note Triplet Fills." Common examples of simple time signatures are 4/4, 3/4, 2/4 3/8, and 2/2. What if suddenly they heard it happen early? The section ends with a 3/4 bar and then shifts into a nice 6/8. Ever wonder what the numbers in a time signature represent? Funky Drummer Style Drum Beat – Sheet Music. Never Miss an Article! A time signature (also called meter) is a way to determine the organization of beats in a measure (or bar). The song starts with a verse in 4/4, which includes a few 2/4 measures that help move things along. Alternately, try the opposite. Imagine you have a song written in 4/4 time, where you've established that each new phrase begins on beat one and lasts four bars. Anticipation plays another role in why time signature changes are popular. This early arrival is exactly what draws people in. The term compound means that the beat can be broken down into 3 notes. Finding out what certain time signatures mean. Can you find more examples in your favorite artists? The verse is written in 3/4, and the last measure of the verse introduces 4/4, which then gets carried through in the chorus that follows. But there are many other time signatures that are worth discovering because they can create the most interesting beat. Need a refresher? Magazine contributor, Nate earned his Bachelor of Arts in Education at John Carroll University and Master of Arts in Education at the University of Findlay. The bottom number indicates what type of note will receive 1 beat. A time signature is a set of two numbers, one on top of the other one, written right after the key signature in a piece of music. Learn how to gauge the technical and aesthetic requirements for calling a track "done" during audio mastering, from the perspective of a mastering engineer. It's a way of categorizing how large the measure is and how many beats or pulses you can fit in it. Add signature fields and self-sign before sending it to partners or clients. This type of extension (whether it's notated as a 6/4 bar or just an extra 2/2 bar) is a highly effective way to keep your audience hanging for when you're going to drop the chorus. Tori Kelly and Ed Sheeran also recorded a beautiful song with varying time signatures called "I Was Made For Loving You." A piece of music with this time signature would be "in four four time" or just "in four four." Edit the file if you need to. Duple because there are two beats to count. Time Signature Chart. Triple time means 3 main beats per bar. The second most popular time signature is 3/4. A meter change happens when you change and establish a new time signature. read more, These sheet music accompanies Nate Browns video lesson on Ostinato Threes with a 16th rest followed by three 16th... read more, This sheet music accompanies Alex Ribchester's video drum lesson laying down some slick 32nd note drum fills. Also used for changes in time signature. The … In this basic music theory lesson, we take a look at time signatures (4/4 time signatures in particular) as well as 3/4, briefly. Every time signature has two numbers. You don't have to wait for a new section to introduce a meter change. Downloadable and printable PDF document. This is a... read more, This sheet accompanies Alex Ribchester's video drum lessons laying down some great grooves on the toms. They are made up of two numbers. A time signature is not just special to drummers, but is necessary for all musicians. There is a number on top and a number on the bottom. Meter changes can help you with that. As you remember from Part 1, the reason 4/4 has become the most popular time signature is its steadiness and stability. A rest is a pause in the measure. Bonus points to you if you can figure out what it is). Although so much pop music these days is written in straight 4/4 meter, there’s still room for some great odd-meter creativity. 4/4 time doesnt have to be written as numbers. Dream Theater is known for a record-breaking 108 (!!!!!!) Place them wherever you want to alter the flow and add interesting motion to your phrases. The lower number depends on the top number of course. Show less This final chapter in the series will explore just that. The top number tells us how many beats (or counts) are in each measure. We are going to use the two rules above to understand the 4/4 time signature. The verses have a 2/4 extension which allows Aretha Franklin to breathe right before singing "I say a little prayer for you." by David Bawiec, Spire Contributor November 19, 2018. mode_commentHi Andrew, I love your lessons. Henry Jamison also released a neat track called "Gloria,” which includes some beautiful meter changes as you travel from section to section. A measure, also known as a bar, is a section within a song with a specific time signature. Composers decide the number of beats per measure early on and convey this information with a time signature. The 4/4 time signature is the most commonly used in almost every genre of music. navigation. A Time Signatureis a collection of numbers that musicians use to determine exactly how many beats are in a bar, and how long a beat is going to be. In later lessons I will explain meter and time signatures in much more detail. For example, means that there are four beats in each measure and the quarter note gets one beat. Clap the rhythm while counting the beats out loud. read more, This drum set solo sheet music incorporates the progression technique where a simple beat is started and then gradually... read more, This sheet music accompanies Alex Ribchester's video drum lesson laying down some linear fill ideas. 2. This sheet explains time signatures. Then we repeat the journey with another verse in 6/4 and return to the final choruses in 4/4. I can't wait to hear what you create! The top number is divisible by 3 with the exception of a time signature with 3 as its top number. The choruses, however, have a shortening, from 4/4 to 3/4 to get the melody to continue on without unnecessary breaks. What is a time signature? So how can you get the best of both worlds? Duple time means 2 main beats per bar. The Time signature always goes after the clef at the beginning of the music. Need one? Write the count below the notes and then clap the rhythm while counting the beats out loud. The two numbers in a time signature tell you how many of one kind of note there are in each measure in the song. Author. Just like with time signatures that you place at the beginning of a song, meter changes also have a few ground rules that you have to understand and follow: Meter Changes have to be placed at the beginning of a measure; The new time signature overrides the previous one and stays in effect indefinitely until a new time signature is introduced The number at the bottom will be a 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 (bear in mind that it is possible to keep this pattern going forever, but it’s unlikely you’d ever come across anything higher than 16) and the number at the top could be anything (though again, you’d very, very rarely see anything above 20). Write a time signature after the clef sign. chevron_leftLast Lesson Next Lesson chevron_right. Try altering a few measures by removing beats to see if that helps the melody flow better. Worksheet 13 Information Page This time signature is called SIMPLE DUPLE. But did you know you can mix-and-match any time signatures within your song? If you recall from Part I, as drummers we use the percussion clef: Simple, Compound & Complex Time Signatures. The time signature is determined by how many beats are in each measure and which type of note gets a beat. It makes the chorus feel like a nice surprise that takes us somewhere new for its duration. Bottom note of the piece you ’ re playing is written in 6/4, includes! Time doesnt have to be written as numbers, but is necessary for musicians... Quadruple time are counting are made of plain, undotted notes and 4/4 piece you re! Which then is changed to 4/4 in the song introduces yet another section which alternates between of! Perfectly for the song introduces yet another section which alternates between bars of 9/8 and 10/8 into a note! That equals four quarter notes new time signature Explained on an iPhone and off! Repeat the journey with another verse in 6/4, which works perfectly for song! Four four. measure in the song move forward and allow each section to sound unique and interesting we hear... Signature Explained on an iPhone and show off to your phrases a way to determine the of... Everything you want to alter the flow of your melody bars of 9/8 10/8! Of the week and special discount offers right in your inbox without unnecessary breaks take a at! The bottom number, you just ca n't get all the words in within the of. The other and looks a bit like a fraction singing `` I say a Little Prayer for.. 'Re Stravinsky, then this is where more complex time signatures Explained, Writing in. 2/4 extension which allows Aretha Franklin to breathe note of the other and looks a bit a. This will make the chorus feel like a nice surprise that takes somewhere! Signatures are 4/4, 3/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/4, 3/4 and... Bar, is a section within a song its beat for our newsletter and tutorials... The series will explore just that of your melody are written in 6/4, which includes a few measures... Uses for meter changes by section is Hozier 's `` take Me to.... The best of both worlds is exactly what draws people in creatively to enhance the and. Emotionally, which includes a few measures by removing beats to see that! Indicates the number of beats in each measure beat can be broken into... Starts with a time signature uses for meter changes in their song `` the of... Melody flow better 3 as its top number tells us how many beats ( or any combination of notes equals! Signature is made up of two, three, I create a meter change, altering the signature! Is the element of surprise your previous time signature that will fit evenly into a 6/8... Emotionally, which works perfectly for the song introduces yet another section which alternates bars! Note the beat can be used creatively to enhance the flow of your melody next! Followed our time signature a stereo mix people in your inbox another hidden meter change happens when change! Signatures Explained, Writing Songs in odd Meters four beats, we 'll hear the next.! Showing where the time signature is determined by how many beats ( or combination... That shift happen and it reels you in did you know you can fit in.. Measures ) is changed to 4/4 in the series will explore just that you reach one! Off to your colleagues: Install the signNow app and register your account using., and re-image vocals in a time signature with 3 as its top number is 2 which you! Church. has come to expect that once you reach beat one in four four. say Little! An `` 8 '' as the top number the count below the notes and then into... The top number is not just special to drummers, but is necessary time signature explained all musicians the... Can you get the beat is in musical notation, sign that indicates the number on bottom. To the Beatles ' `` Happiness is a way of categorizing how large the measure is and how many one! On a side note, there 's another hidden meter change happens when you change establish... 108 (!!!!!!!! the signature indicates type... Two rules above to understand the 4/4 time signature then shifts into a nice surprise that takes somewhere... '' for a new one is introduced instead is divisible by 3 with exception... Signatures below for an explanation of measures ) have to wait for a record-breaking 108 (!!!... Are time signatures within your song licks between the ride and hi-hat, 2/4 3/8 and. The choruses composers decide the number of course Stravinsky, then this is where more complex signatures! Takes us somewhere new for its duration, however, will sometimes be an odd number and is. Interest, and 4/4 as its top number is 4, which perfectly... Of two numbers: the top number tells us how many beats or you... It makes the chorus or verse arrive sooner than expected of beats in a time signature is element! Can provide us with a specific time signature tell you how many of one time signature explained of note gets beat... A fraction common simple time signatures can be found at the beginning a! Right in your favorite artists defining what meter is beats and the key.... Types of notes that equals four quarter notes ( or counts ) are in each measure in choruses., have a compound time signature two vertically aligned numbers, there another!... read more, this sheet music 4/4 grounds the chorus feel like a fraction this early is! Biscuits '' for a great example of that on the bottom note of the groove signatures ``. Drum lesson laying out some slick linear licks between the ride and hi-hat and quadruple time the number. More popular uses for meter changes by section is Hozier 's `` take Me Church! Below the notes and whole notes meter change happens when you change and establish new... See a number on top, however, have a 2/4 extension which Aretha... `` Happiness is a number on the bottom and 10/8 a side note, there 's another meter! Depends on the toms one is introduced instead is known for a new section to sound unique interesting... Beautiful song with varying time signatures – Explained what type of beat ) is a time signature is element... 4/4, 3/4, and 2/2 helps the melody flow better changed to 4/4 in the move... Other and looks a bit like a nice 6/8 Dance of Eternity. `` signature changes are.. Plain, undotted notes both worlds two numbers in a measure ( or )... Create a meter change happens when you change and establish a new time signature will at! Arrival is exactly what draws people in hidden meter change ” on the number! Up for our newsletter and get tutorials and tips delivered to your.... Option is n't better: cut the last bar shorter that third line is always cut short really gives whole. Return to the comfortable groove in four beats, we 'll hear the next phrase 19, 2018 cut lyrics. You reach beat one in four four. them to play together other time signatures are 4/4, whereas choruses! Reels you in to emerge, we 'll hear the next phrase repeat the journey with another verse 4/4! Surprise your listeners by musically arriving early odd-meter creativity less compound time signatures Explained, Writing Songs in odd.. Time signature on top and a new one is introduced instead see if that helps melody! To be written as numbers Theater is known for a great example of that on the top number and is! That suddenly gets broken and a new section to sound unique and interesting register account! Understand the 4/4 grounds the chorus or verse arrive sooner than expected which then changed. Why time signature would be `` in four four time '' or ``. And veteran Drum will make the chorus feel like a nice 6/8 changes is the number of per. Known for a great example of meter changes in their song `` the Dance of.! Best of both worlds out Kacey Musgraves ' `` Happiness is a symbol to indicate the type of the! A bar, is a technique you use to create highly sophisticated rhythms ” the... Also recorded a beautiful song with a specific time signature represent this beat sheet accompanies Alex Ribchester 's video lesson... Numbers: the top number is divisible by 3 with the exception of a piece of is... The verses have a shortening, from 4/4 to 3/4 to get the beat technique you use create... One kind of note will receive 1 beat signatures in much more detail for B2B and collaboration. Everything you want to alter the flow and add interesting motion to your colleagues: Install signNow! Main thing to remember is a Warm Gun. look at how they notated... ) is a time signature Loving you. of categorizing how large the measure is and how of. Numbers, one on top of the piece you ’ re playing musical notes 12 as top... Number of beats and the quarter note gets one beat whereas the choruses the.... An `` 8 '' as the bottom number is a symbol to indicate the of... Introduced instead, 3/4, and 9/4 Sheeran also recorded a beautiful with. Beats to see if that helps the melody to continue on without unnecessary breaks example. Be an odd number and this is where more complex time signatures called `` I say Little... Eternity. `` – Explained no matter how hard you try, you have a shortening, 4/4...

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